Indiana Tree Company http://indianatreecompany.com Tree Removal Professionals Bloomington, IN Fri, 28 Sep 2018 15:13:29 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.8 Emerald Ash Borer: Damage, Facts, & Locations http://indianatreecompany.com/emerald-ash-borer-damage-facts-locations/ Fri, 28 Sep 2018 14:59:32 +0000 http://indianatreecompany.com/?p=25012 The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has infected the ash trees across the country for years. But, what is the EAB?...

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The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) has infected the ash trees across the country for years. But, what is the EAB? What are symptoms of their intrusion? Where are they located? What do they look like and how are they spreading? Let’s dive into these questions in detail and address the questions as thorough as we can with the help from government, educational, and other valid sources. 

What is the EAB?

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a wood-boring beetle that is native to Asia, but was first spotted in Michigan in 2002.  The USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area states the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was probably introduced at least 10 years prior to 2002 in wood crating, pallets or similar packing material that was shipped into Michigan from Asia.

EAB Popularity & Search Outbreaks

Over the last 12 months, Google trends shows us that queries for “emerald ash borer” are most popular in late May/early June.

While the EAB may be a new term to you, but over the last 5 years, Google trends shows the pattern of queries for “emerald ash borer” in May/June.

Over the last 12 months, South Dakota searched for the “emerald ash borer” the most out of all 50 states, followed by Vermont, Nebraska, Iowa, and Wisconsin.

Damage & Symptoms

Sometimes the initial damage and symptoms are difficult to detect. According to the USDA Forest Service, new infestations are difficult to detect, as damage to the tree may not be apparent for up to three years; symptoms of an infestation can include branch dieback in the upper crown excessive epicormic branching on the tree trunk, and vertical bark splits. Woodpecker damage is sometimes apparent.

The most detrimental stage of the EAB to the well-being of the ash tree is the larval stage. Vanderbilt arboretum says, Larvae of the EAB feed on the inner bark of the ash tree, and cause a disruption of the tree’s ability to efficiently transport water and nutrients.

Colorado’s government states that ash species already devastated by the EAB invasion are:  white ash (F. americana), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), black ash (F. nigra), blue ash (F. quadrangulata), pumpkin ash (F. profunda), and Carolina ash (F. caroliniana).  

Locations

Vanderbilt claims the EAB has been found in over twenty states, and is spreading across the nation quickly with little to nothing standing in its way. Areas that have been affected the most include the Great Lakes, the Mideast, and now the Southeast. You can view a more up to date detection map by year by going here === EAB detection map.

Each month, the USDA APHIS produces an updated EAB Detection Map. You can view the most current map by going here ===>> eab detection map.

Cause of Spreading

U of A states the adult emerald ash borer can move short distances (up to 1 mile) by flight, but people move emerald ash borer long distances by moving firewood. EAB moves short distances by flying and longer distances by hitching a ride in infested ash trees or ash wood products that are moved by people. Adults don’t fly far from where they emerge, depending on the availability of food (ash trees). EAB is most commonly spread long distances by people moving infested firewood, nursery stock, or ash logs.

Karen Bennett, a Forestry State Specialist, confirms what the U of A claims by writing, EAB quickly spreads when people move nursery stock and untreated wood products, especially firewood. It can move on its own, but only two miles or so per year. These new infestations are likely the result of natural spreading, due to the proximity to previously known infestations.

Treatment

There are several different recommendations to treating a tree that has been affected by the EAB. The treatment will depend on the stage of the eab development, location of the eab, age and health of the tree, and other factors.

U of A has a good flow chart of yes or no questions along with images to help identify your needs and treatments. You can view it here. In short, there are your options if your tree has less than 30% crown damage, here are your options according to U of A:

1) Remove the tree:

Homeowners need to understand the costs of treating their ash trees for the foreseeable future versus the cost of removing the tree. If you remove the tree, please pay attention to any quarantine in your area. DO NOT MOVE the wood outside of any quarantined area! To see if you are in the quarantine area go to:

2) Protective Cover Sprays:

The first type of insecticide treatment targets the adults. Insecticides that serve as a protective cover sprays are applied to the trunk, main branches, and (depending on the label) foliage and kill the adults as they feed on the ash leaves. These treatments are best timed during the peak period of adult activity which is usually just after the adults emerge in the Spring. Permethrin, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and carbaryl are all preventive trunk, branch, and foliage cover sprays.

3) Systemic insecticides:

Early stage larvae that tunnel under the bark can be killed with insecticides that move systemically in the tree. These treatments work best when timed to be present when the young larvae are present and before there has been extensive injury.

The Nebraska Forest Service offers the following treatment recommendations:

  • One treatment available for use by homeowners is a soil application of imidacloprid (such as Bayer Advanced 12-Month Tree and Shrub Insect Control*). The application should be made in May and is most effective on small trees, generally less than 15 inches in trunk diameter.
  • Tree care professionals are able to use additional products such as trunk injections and trunk and foliage sprays. Contact a certified arborist for these treatments. We recommend Seth at Trees PLE, Inc. for treatments in Indiana. You can contact him at treenerdseth@gmail.com or 812-361-7124.
  • Trunk injection treatments are commonly used to protect trees from emerald ash borer (EAB).
  • Treatments are not a one-time occurrence. They do not immunize the tree for life. Ash trees to be saved will likely need to be treated every one to twoyears, depending on the type of treatment. Less frequent treatments may be possible after most of the ash trees in an area have been killed and the EAB population has decreased, but this serious pest will always be with us, and valuable ash trees will always need periodic protection.

Images

Dead trees falling in a forest in northwestern Ohio in 2015, six years after the insect (EAB) devastated the area. Image by Steven J. Baskauf CC0

 

Damage to inner bark by EAB Image by Steven J. Baskauf CC0

 

D-shaped exit hole in bark indicating infestation Image by Steven J. Baskauf CC0

 

After pupating within the ash host, EAB adults emerge in the Spring. Image: James Zablotny Ph.D.

 

An example of the S-shaped patterns, called galleries, that EAB larvae create as they feed under the bark of ash trees. This piece of bark has its outer layer removed so the galleries are visible, but usually the outer bark hides this sign of EAB infestation.

 

“Woodpecker flecking,” as shown here, may occur when woodpeckers feed aggressively due to high numbers of insects inside a tree. Look for small strips of bark missing from high branches of ash trees as one clue to a potential emerald ash borer infestation

 

D) Begins in top one-third of canopy E) Progresses until tree is bare

 

 

Eric R. Day, Virginia Polytechnic & State University, Bugwood.org

 

canopy thinning

 

sprouting from the base of the tree

 

https://nfs.unl.edu/eab-faq
D-shaped exit holes 1/8-inch across and bark stripping from woodpecker activity

 

Additional Facts

Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a beetle native to Asia, was first detected in Michigan in 2002. https://ento.psu.edu/extension/trees-shrubs/emerald-ash-borer/factsheets/what-is-eab
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was probably introduced at least 10 years prior to 2002 in wood crating, pallets or similar packing material that was shipped into Michigan from Asia. https://ento.psu.edu/extension/trees-shrubs/emerald-ash-borer/factsheets/EAB2943.pdf
Although this beetle spreads naturally by flying short distances, long-distance spread is caused by people moving EAB-infested ash firewood, nursery stock, and timber. https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/agplants/emerald-ash-borer
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is a non-native, wood-boring beetle that attacks ash tree species. It is an invasive pest that is rapidly killing millions of ash trees. https://www.bouldercounty.org/property-and-land/forest-health/emerald-ash-borer/
The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is a destructive wood-boring pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Native to China, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East, the emerald ash borer beetle (EAB) was unknown in North America until its discovery in southeast Michigan in 2002. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer
Today, EAB infestations have been detected in 32 states; Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer
During their larval stage, EAB feed under the bark of ash trees. This activity damages, and eventually kills, the trees.

EAB adults mate shortly after emergence in the spring. Each female can lay 60-90 eggs in their lifetime and eggs typically hatch in 7-10 days.

https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/planthealth/plant-pest-and-disease-programs/pests-and-diseases/emerald-ash-borer
Redheaded ash borers will attack nearly all dying and dead hardwoods, but chiefly ash, oak, hickory, persimmon, and hackberry. http://entoweb.okstate.edu/ddd/insects/redheadedashborer.htm
Adults are green beetles approximately one-half inch long with slender bodies. Larvae are cream colored and up to 1 1/4 inch long. Larvae have brown heads and a 10-segmented body with bell-shaped segments near the back end. https://nfs.unl.edu/eab-faq
How is EAB spread?

EAB spreads mostly through human-assisted movement, such as moving infested firewood and nursery stock. To prevent the spread, moving firewood and nursery stock out of infested areas is regulated by state and federal quarantines.

https://nfs.unl.edu/eab-faq
There are a number of insects that might be mistaken for EAB. These include: Honeysuckle Flatheaded Borers, Six-Spotted Tiger Beetles, Green Ground Beetles, Click Beetles, and others. http://mainewoodlandowners.org/LandownerResources/Articles/tabid/129/ID/87/The-Emerald-Ash-Borer-15-Facts.aspx
The larvae are often not killed by insecticides because they live under the bark of the trees. http://mainewoodlandowners.org/LandownerResources/Articles/tabid/129/ID/87/The-Emerald-Ash-Borer-15-Facts.aspx
All three species of ash found in Maine (White Ash, Green Ash, and Brown or Black Ash) are susceptible to Emerald Ash Borer invasions. http://mainewoodlandowners.org/LandownerResources/Articles/tabid/129/ID/87/The-Emerald-Ash-Borer-15-Facts.aspx
Approximately 150-200 million ash trees have died in the United States due to Emerald Ash Borer infestation. http://mainewoodlandowners.org/LandownerResources/Articles/tabid/129/ID/87/The-Emerald-Ash-Borer-15-Facts.aspx

 

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Do Pineapples Grow on Trees or Out of the Ground? http://indianatreecompany.com/do-pineapples-grow-on-trees-or-out-of-the-ground/ Wed, 22 Aug 2018 19:03:59 +0000 http://indianatreecompany.com/?p=24988 The post Do Pineapples Grow on Trees or Out of the Ground? appeared first on Indiana Tree Company.

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Have you ever been eating pineapple at a bbq or sipping a pineapple flavored cocktail and asked yourself, “where do pineapples grow”? According to Google AdWords data, there are 12,100 monthly searches worldwide for the query “where do pinapples grow”.

So, you’re not alone with that question and don’t beat yourself up for not knowing the answer. In this post, we will help you understand this pervasive question. But, before we directly answer that question, let’s examine who and where are people searching for these queries.

What countries are searching for this type of question?

According to Google Trends, the United Kingdom searches the most around this question, followed by the United States, Ireland, Canada, and Australia respectively.

In the United States, Arizona looks for this answer the most out of all 50 state followed by Pennsylvania, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Illinois.

So, what is the answer? Where do pineapples grow?

Contrary to what some people think, pineapples don’t grow on trees – they grow out of the ground from a leafy plant. The main shoot, which consists of a shoot apex or growing part of the stem, is always growing upward and never dies. The fruit is formed in thes stem when the shoot apex makes a flower bud instead of a leaf bud according to the Pineapple Project research.

How long does it take for a pineapple to grow to its full size?

Pineapples grow from clusters of pollinated flowers that join together to form the fruit and are ready to harvest about 20+ months after planting according to Better Health.

How long does it take for a pineapple to ripen?

While a pineapple may take over 2 years to grow to full maturity, they are usually picked slightly earlier. Webquestions breaks down this answer in stages:

-Rooting the crown: 2 weeks

-Planting and letting the roots grow: 2-3 months. After that stage you have a healthy pineapple growing.

-Grow a flower: 15 months

-Mature and ripe: 3-4 months

So, once a flower is visible in the center of the stalk, it takes an additional 3-4 months to ripen for consumption. Dole Fruit Hawaii states that a pineapple will not ripen any further – get any sweeter- after picking.

Do pineapples have seeds?

Life Science answers this question well by stating, the crown of the fruit contains small roots and if it’s planted into the ground (or in a pot), a new fruit-producing plant will grow, which means there is no seeds. Additionally, the plant’s “suckers”(side shoots) and “slips” can produce new plants when re-planted. Pineapples are amazing seedless fruits that is produced by the fusion of several flowers into one large fruit.

How many pineapples grow on one plant?

Pineapple plants only produce one pineapple every fruiting season, but the plant can produce fruit for up to 50 years says Better Health.

Where do pineapples grow in the world?

The plant is indigenous to South America from the area between southern Brazil and Paraguay. However, the majority of the world’s pineapples now come from Southeast Asia namesly the Philippines and Thailand. The Huffington Post sites the freshest pineapples found in the US come from Costa Rica or Hawaii grown pineapples.

 

We hope we summed up the mysterious question of where do pineapples grow.

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Tulip Poplar: Indiana State Tree Facts & Figures http://indianatreecompany.com/tulip-poplar-indiana-state-tree-facts-figures/ Thu, 22 Mar 2018 14:51:15 +0000 http://indianatreecompany.com/?p=24937 TULIP POPLAR Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron Tulipifera), also called yellow polar, tulip tree, or canoe tree because Native Americans used it...

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TULIP POPLAR

Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron Tulipifera), also called yellow polar, tulip tree, or canoe tree because Native Americans used it to make dugout canoes. No less of a woodsman than Daniel Boone chose such a canoe to carry his own family from Kentucky to the western frontier. And, George Washington admired this tree as well, with a giant he planted in 1785 being selected as Mount Vernon’s official Bicentennial Tree.

Tuliptree is one of the most common trees (the Birches as a group are another) that serve as “drought indicators” by dropping their yellowing interior leaves when their soil becomes too dry during summer drought. This is simply how they cope with drought, by cutting down on the number of transpiring “water leaks.”

The soft, fine-grained wood of tulip trees is known as “poplar” (short for “yellow poplar”) in the U.S., but marketed abroad as “American tulipwood” or by other names. It is very widely used where a cheap, easy-to work and stable wood is needed. Tulip poplars can be found throughout the state of Indiana and Easter US in deciduous woods.

We’ve put together several fun facts about the tulip poplar below. You can also see the infographic below or view it directly here.

Medicinal Use

Tulip-poplar’s bark was used medicinally in the late 1800’s as a tonic for treating rheumatism and dyspepsia, and also as a heart stimulant. The bark contains ‘tulipiferine,’ which is said to have powerful effects on the heart and nervous system

Tree Size

Tulip poplars are a fast growing tree and can reach 150 feet or more in the forest. The Kentucky Champion tree is in Beaver Creek, McCreary county. It is 168 feet tall.

It typically grows to 70-90 feet tall with 35-50 foot spread in cultivation.

Flower and Fruit

Orange and green, tulip-shaped flowers appear in May and June. Upright samaras are arranged in a tight spiral that opens when ripe.

Leaf

Tulip poplars have uniquely shaped, bright green leaves. They can range from 3-8 inches long and wide. Their fall color is yellow or golden yellow.

State Tree

The tulip poplar is the official State Tree of Indiana. It was designated the official state tree in 1931 (Tennessee and Kentucky also recognize the tulip polar as their official tree symbol). The Indiana state seal’s border has the unique, distinct shape of the tulip poplar.

TULIP POPLAR INFOGRAPHIC

tulip poplar: indiana state tree facts & figures

 

Sources:

https://statesymbolsusa.org/symbol-official-item/indiana/state-tree/tulip-poplar

http://www.uky.edu/hort/Tulip-Poplarhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Indiana-StateSeal.svg

https://www.in.gov/history/2798.htmhttp://www.uky.edu/hort/Tulip-Poplar

http://www-pub.naz.edu/~treewalk/tuliptree/tuliptree.htm

https://www.arborday.org/programs/nationaltree/tuliptree.cfm

http://canadiantreetours.org/species-pages/Tulip-tree.html

https://www.nps.gov/shen/learn/nature/tuliptree.htm

http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/plants/plant_finder/plant_pages/7608.shtml

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/gardening/3294280/Branch-lines-the-tulip-tree.html

https://www.thedch.org/sites/default/files/ckeditor_uploads/other/LCT15_Liriodendron%20tulipifera.pdf

http://forestry.ohiodnr.gov/tuliptree

 

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[INFOGRAPHIC] Top 10 Tallest Trees in the World http://indianatreecompany.com/infographic-top-10-tallest-trees-in-the-world/ Mon, 12 Feb 2018 15:51:32 +0000 http://indianatreecompany.com/?p=24916 Trees, as you know, can be monumental! They are the biggest and the longest living organism here on earth. Some...

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Trees, as you know, can be monumental! They are the biggest and the longest living organism here on earth. Some trees can be thousands of years old and others can be hundreds of meters above the ground. Below are ten (10) of the world’s tallest trees.

INFOGRAPHIC Top Ten Tallest Trees in the World

INFOGRAPHIC Top Ten Tallest Trees in the World_Indiana Tree Company

1) Cost Redwoods

Coast Redwoods are amongst Earth’s tallest trees. They are classified as an evergreen and they belong to the conifer division. [1] Quite interestingly, Redwoods, in spite of its tall structure, have wide spreading lateral roots with no taproot.[2] The bark is up to 12 inches (30 cm) thick and quite fibrous [2].

Height

The tallest tree in the world ‘Hyperion’ reaches 379.7 feet (115.7 m). [3]

Location

Redwood National and State Parks California, USA. [4]

2) Mountain Ash

Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus Regnans) is the closest rival of the California’s Redwoods when it comes to being named as the world’s tallest tree; however, it is crowned as the tallest flowering plant in the world. Most of these trees can be found in Tasmania and the state of Victoria in southeastern Australia.

Height

Australia’s ‘Centurion’ measures 99.82 meters (327 feet) [5]

Location

Edwards Rd near Tahune Airwalk, Australia [5]

3) Cost Douglas-Fir

Pseudotsuga menziesii also known as the Coast Douglas-fir is a perennial timber tree that has fragrant needles that naturally grows in the British Columbia and California sierra.[6]

Height

‘Doerner fir’ the tallest Douglas fir was measure 327.3 feet in 2011 [7]

Location

Oregon Coast mountains west of Roseburg, near the Burnt Mountain Recreation area in BLM forest. [7]

4) Sitka Spruce

Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) is also known as the coast or tidewater spruce. Its common name, Sitka, reflects the place of its Alaskan discovery; coast, its geographical distribution; and tidewater, its habitat. [8]

Height

The tallest known Sitka spruce in the world is ‘Raven Spruce’ which is 96.7 m (96.68 m) tall. [9]

Location

Exact location of this enormous tree is not disclosed but it is known that the tree is located in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. [9]

5) Giant Sequoias

Being dwarfed by Earth’s most massive tree, the giant sequoias fills you with wonder. It’s hard to believe that a living thing can be so enormous and old.

Height

The General Sherman Tree is the world’s largest tree by volume, measured by volume. It stands 275 feet (83 m) tall. [11]

Location

The General Sherman, a giant sequoia can be found Sequoia National Park [3]

6) Yellow Meranti

Yellow meranti is light yellow and moderately durable. It is used for interior joinery, boxes and crates, furniture, flooring, light carpentry, and veneer. Its IUCN Red List status is “Endangered.” [12]

Height

The world’s tallest known tropical tree ‘Maliau Basin’ measures 89.5 metres. [13]

Location

The tallest known Yellow Meranti tree has been discovered in Malaysia, Sabah.  [13]

7) Manna Gum

Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) has very light color of trunk. [14] Occurs widely in the south-eastern mainland from south-eastern Queensland to Adelaide, South Australia and throughout Tasmania where it grows in a variety of situations from the coast through to the mountains in tall open forest. [15]

Height

Tallest Manna Gum tree measures 91.3 m tall. [14]

Location

The ‘White Knight’ (tallest Manna Gum) can be found in Evercreech Forest Reserve Tasmania Australia

8) Southern Blue Gum

Eucalyptus globulus also known as the Blue Gum is a fast-growing tree and is widely cultivated as a plantation species within Australia and other subtropical climates. The wood is primarily used for pulp and fuel, though some is harvested for woodworking purposes. Blue Gum is generally regarded as a utility lumber. [16]

Height

Neeminah Loggorale Meena is the highest Blue Gum measuring 90.7 m. [17]

Location

Tasmania, Australia [17]

9) Alpine Ash

Eucalyptus delegatensis, commonly known as alpine ash, woollybutt, gum-topped stringybark, and white-top, is a sub-alpine or temperate tree of southeastern Australia. A straight, grey-trunked tree, it reaches heights of over 90 meters in suitable conditions. [18]

Height

Staggering height of 87.9 m.  [18]

Location

The tallest currently known specimen is located in Tasmania, Australia.  [18]

10) Brown Top Stringybark

Brown Top Stringybark botanical name Eucalyptus obliqua has thick, stringy rough bark over the trunk extending to the branchlets. It belongs in the green-leaved ash group and is notable for the large, obliquely ovate, glossy green, petiolate, pendulous juvenile leaves. Fruits are usually distinctly pedicellate and barrel-shaped. [19]

Height

King Stringy the tallest Eucalyptus obliqua measures 86 m. [20]

Location

This giant tree can be found in Tasmania, Australia. [20]

 

Sources:

[1] Encyclopedia of Life – Sequoia sempervirens

[2] iNaturalist – Coast Redwood

[3] LiveScience – Giant Sequoias and Redwoods: The Largest and Tallest Trees

[4] Save the Redwoods – Coast Redwoods

[5] National Register of Big Trees

[6] Go Botany – Pseudotsuga menziesii

[7] M. D. Vaden – Doerner Fir | Tallest Douglas Fir
[8] The Oregon Encyclopedia – Sitka Spruce

[9] Wondermondo – Raven’s Tower – Tallest Sitka Spruce

[10] Save the Redwoods – Giant Sequoia

[11] National Park Service – The General Sherman Tree

[12] Forest Legality Initiative – Yellow Meranti

[13] Wondermondo – List of Tallest Trees in the World

[14] WonderMondo – White Knight – The Tallest Manna Gum

[15] Australian National Botanic Garden – Eucalypts for Cold Climates

[16] Wood Database – Blue Gum

[17] Wondermondo – Neeminah Loggorale Meena

[18] Wikipedia – Eucalyptus delegatensis

[19] Euclid – Eucalyptus obliqua

[20] Wondermondo – Tallest Trees of the World

 

 

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[INFOGRAPHIC] The Biggest Tree in the World by Volume http://indianatreecompany.com/infographic-the-biggest-tree-in-the-world-by-volume/ Tue, 06 Feb 2018 06:00:36 +0000 http://indianatreecompany.com/?p=24723 The biggest tree in the world by volume is not the tallest or widest, but the overall volume of its...

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The biggest tree in the world by volume is not the tallest or widest, but the overall volume of its trunk makes it the biggest tree on Earth. The biggest tree on earth is the General Sherman Tree located in the Sequoia National Park in California. It stands at a staggering height of 274.9 ft or 83.8 m[1] and has a bole volume of 52,508 cu ft or 1,487 m3[2], a mass of 2,472,000 lb. or 1,121t. [3]

The Biggest Tree in the World by Volume – General Sherman

biggest tree in the world by volume - general sherman

 

General Sherman Statistics

Height

The General Sherman stands 274.9ft (83.8m) above base.1

Circumference

General Sherman has a circumference of 102.6ft (31.3m) at the ground. 1

Max Diameter

The max diameter of the tree is 36.5ft (11.1m) at the base. 1

Diameter at 60 Feet

The tree’s diameter is 17.5ft (5.3m) at 60 ft (18m) above the base. 2

Diameter at 180 Feet

At 180ft (55m) above the ground, General Sherman has a diameter of 14ft (4.3m). 2

Diameter of the Largest Branch

The largest branch has a diameter of 6.8ft (2.1m) 1

Height of First Large Branch

The first large branch is 130ft (39.6m) above the base. 1

Estimated Bole Volume

The estimated bole volume is 52,508 cu ft (1,487m3 ). 3

Estimated Bole Mass

The estimated bole mass is 2,472,000 lb or 1,121 t. 3

 

Get Involved and Learn More

If you want to get involved or learn how some of these Giants can help save the world, read more here from Ever Widening Circles. 

 

Sources:

[1] “The General Sherman Tree”. Sequoia National Park. U.S. National Park Service. 1997-03-27. Retrieved 2011-08-12.

[2] Flint, Wendell D. (1987). To Fin the Biggest Tree. Sequoia National History Association. p. 94.

[3] Fry Walter; White, John Roberts (1942). Big Trees. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.

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What is Tree Topping and Does it Harm the Tree? http://indianatreecompany.com/what-is-tree-topping-and-does-it-harm-the-tree/ Sat, 06 May 2017 06:12:01 +0000 http://indianatreecompany.com/?p=24731 What is Tree Topping? Topping is basically butchering of tree branches to stubs or to lateral branches that are not...

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What is Tree Topping?

Topping is basically butchering of tree branches to stubs or to lateral branches that are not large enough to take the terminal role. A lot of trees will have several “tops”. When a tree is topped it creates a lot of stress in the tree and then starts to produce water sprouts. Where the water sprouts start to grow they are a very weak. Topping is often used to reduce the size of the crown. A homeowner may feel that a tree has become too large and near their house, or that tall trees may pose an undesirable risk. If the home owner wants the tree topped, the new branches that grow back are weaker than before and will usually grow to the same size tree in the matter of years and sometimes just in one year.

What Will Topping Do to a Tree?

Trees need leaves to produce food for the whole tree, removing too many of them can temporarily starve a tree and put the tree in survival mode. When topping a tree or taking too many branches off forces rapid growth of multiple shoots (water sprouts) below each cut trying to produce new leaves quickly as possible. If a tree does not have enough stored energy to grow the water sprouts, it will be seriously weakened and may die. When a tree becomes stressed with large open wounds from severe pruning, the tree is more vulnerable to insect and disease. The tree may not have energy to chemically defend the wounds.

When a lot of the leaves and branches are removed, the remaining branches that were usually in the shade and are now quickly exposed to the sun and can cause sunburn of the tissues under the bark and can lead to cankers, bark splitting, and death to the branches. The sunburn happens more often in younger, thin barked, dark barked and trees that are going through drought. One of these or combination along with suddenly being exposed to sunlight can create sunburn. When a tree is in survival mode that causes a tree to produce water sprouts come at great cost to the tree. These water shoots are created near the surface of the old branches. Unlike your typical branches that grow in overlapping wood tissues, these new shoots are attached only in the outermost layers of the branches and are poorly attached. A lot of tree climbers don’t even like to climb past where new growth started after a tree has been topped. The new shoots grow quickly, as much as 20 feet in one year in some types of trees. The water shoots are easy to break during windy or icy conditions. While the original goal was to reduce the crown to help the tree and protect the house, the risk of a limb breaking has now tremendously increased.

If a tree has a dead “top” it’s okay to cut it off, but that just means another branch just took the terminal role of the “top”. It can be difficult sometimes to trim up a tree exactly how the homeowner wants it done, but there is usually an alternative route to topping that the homeowner will be happy about, especially compared to topping.   I could drive through most neighborhoods that have mature trees and find several trees that had been topped, they are everywhere. Topping is a very common practice but isn’t recommended by arborists. If any company advertises tree topping as a service they do I wouldn’t recommend them to be hired.

Removing a Topped Tree

When a tree has been topped and is now unhealthy, it can a lot of times be very expensive to properly remove it. When climbing to remove a tree these water sprouts that have grown 20 feet or more and are very large branches to rig. Thankfully they are lighter branches usually and thanks to the help of an arborist block and porta wrap and some good rope a lot of these removals become doable but you are still dealing with a 20 foot branch dangling next to the arborist and usually overhanging next to the house. These branches make it very difficult sometimes to remove the tree. In some cases you can get a bucket truck to the tree, but bucket trucks don’t always get you high enough in the tree or can’t always get these trucks close enough to the tree. When a tree is too rotted to climb and can’t get a bucket truck close enough or doesn’t reach high enough, often times a crane is used. Cranes have different ranges in height like bucket trucks but a lot of bucket trucks reach 61 foot working height meaning where your hands can reach and some can go 75-85 feet, but less common. Cranes a lot of times reach 120-150 feet and that number sometimes includes the jib or sometimes the jib can add onto that height. There are definitely cranes that can go higher than that, but then prices go up really fast from there, usually you have to get permits just to move the crane and semis to bring in counter weights which result in very expensive setup fees.

Contact us today if you need help assessing the right approach for your tree removal project. Call us at 812.558.2095 or fill out this form for a free estimate.

Source: http://www.treesaregood.com/treecare/resources/WhyToppingHurts.pdf

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Finding the Right Tree Climbing Gear for Your Tree Removal Project http://indianatreecompany.com/finding-the-right-tree-climbing-gear-for-your-tree-removal-project/ Sat, 06 Feb 2016 06:09:23 +0000 http://indianatreecompany.com/?p=24727 Finding the Right Tree Climbing Gear for Your Tree Removal Project As any good arborist knows, part of their job...

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Finding the Right Tree Climbing Gear for Your Tree Removal Project

As any good arborist knows, part of their job description is monitoring the health of trees and knowing when they need to be cut down. The size and location of the tree often is a determining factor in what type of climbing gear will be needed for the project. Arborists especially focus on individual trees to determine what climbing equipment they will need. The first steps therefore are studying the tree(s) in their current state for breakage, rot and disease. Once the arborist, sometimes known as a tree surgeon, has determined that the tree in question has to be removed; then he/she studies the ecosystem, the surrounding area and notes any obstructions such as utility poles. It is important that he/she makes a determination based on on-site observation and has a detailed plan in place. It is also necessary to observe how sturdy the tree(s) are and plan out where tree limbs will fall when cut. This is for safety reasons.

Tree Removal Safety Equipment to Get Started

Once you have determined how heavy the tree is, you’ll need to both stabilize and make sure your rigging system can take the weight. Rigging systems often use a combination of pulleys, blocks, ropes, cables and hoists to safely bring down trees. Depending on the type of rigging system you use, you still have to determine force and distance factors along with weight factors. A poorly designed rigging system could end up costing you.

Types of tree rigging systems

All tree rigging systems use a combination of ropes, pulleys and fiddle blocks. Some systems also use cable and hoists to bring down tree limbs safely. The determining factors for what type of tree rigging system are: location of the tree, weight of the tree, angle of the tree, obstacles, and clearance. You want to make sure that you have a good estimate of each of these factors before deciding which tree rigging system is right for your project. Determining the pressure points is also an important step to determining the right safety equipment to use.

Mechanical Advantage:

This system uses additional ropes, pulleys and fiddle blocks to increase your muscle power to pull over trees, add tension to slide lines and lift tree limbs.

Natural Crotch Rigging:

As the name suggests, this system uses the tree’s natural friction to lower tree limbs to the ground using just rigging lines.

False Crotch:

This rigging is often used when the tree is not in bad enough shape to be removed. Using various rope tools such as eye slings, whoopies or loopies with arborist blocks or pulleys to cut and lower specific tree branches makes this system easy and creates the least harm to the tree.

Port–a-Wrap:

This device is primarily used to carry heavy loads safely and efficiently. A tree pulling kit or a fiddle block set work best with this system. The load can be moved laterally in a drift line system or lowered safely to the ground.

Dynamic Spar Rigging:

This rigging system uses dynamic forces to drop pieces into a rigging point below where the wood is being removed. Strong components that can withstand both the force and the weight of the wood are a must with this system. Decelerating equipment that lowers the pieces gradually is suggested to mitigate the impact. Once the pieces have ceased their momentum, a slide or a drift line can be used.

Limb Lifting:

This rigging system is used when you need to lift a tree limb vertically and is typically “tip tied” and lifted using a rigging line and a block or pulley. A lifting/lowering device should be utilized with this system.

Knotless Rigging:

This system is mainly used to lower small lighter branches quickly and easily. It uses only a rigging line and should only be used for static loads.

Spider Leg Balancer:

This is a balancing system designed to help maintain the tree’s shape and the limb’s orientation after being cut from the tree. The balancers provide adjustability to manage the load while at the same time maintain balance while the limb is lowered. This lessens the swing and movement of the limb after it is removed.

Drift Line:

This system was mentioned in the Port-a-Wrap system, but can also be used in the Mechanical Advantage, the Spider Leg Balance and the Dynamic Spur Rigging systems. It is mainly used when an obstacle prevents the tree from being lowered directly down or it needs to be transferred over an obstacle such as a stone wall.

Slide Line:

Like the drift line system above, the slide line system can be used in conjunction with the Mechanical Advantage, and the Spider Leg Balance Rigging systems. It is usually used to transfer wood long distances and is not recommended to be used for dynamic loads.

Once you have determined what rigging system you will use, you can then decide what tree removal equipment you will need for your project.

Tree Climbing Ropes

An essential piece of any tree removal equipment is tree climbing ropes. When you are looking for tree climbing ropes, there are four essential attributes that make tree climbing ropes different than ordinary ropes. These are elasticity, abrasion, tensile strength and durability. An arborist has to have a good understanding of the following factors; weight of the working load and the rope’s breaking point, the rope’s resistance to heat and water, and its resistance to sunlight and chemicals.

Types of climbing ropes

Static:

Static ropes are often used as slings and safety straps since they are more resistant to abrasion. They can also be used to haul lines. Static ropes are made of polyolefin, nylon and/or polyester materials with Kemmantle, Laid and Braided construction.

Dynamic:

Dynamic ropes are primarily used as lifelines due to their flexibility and versatility. They can be easily worked with to create essential knots and can absorb the force of a fall. Nylon dynamic ropes are the most popular material used with Laid and Braided construction.

Tree Climbing Ropes and Gear Storage

Tree removal gear has to be stored correctly for its continued use. As was mentioned in the last section, a tree climbing rope has certain characteristics that make it unique. In order to maintain those characteristics, ropes and other gear need to be stored in a cool, dry place out of direct sunlight. You should never step, drive over or place other heavy equipment on top of your rope. Proper washing when necessary and coiling without placing on a rusty nail or hook will ensure your rope lasts. Harnesses, belts and saddles should be checked regularly for splits and worn areas.

We’ve talked a lot about ropes. You can find out a bit more about tree roping from the National Tree Climbing Guide.

Tree Removal Harnesses, Belts and Saddles

Safety and fit are the main concerns when looking for the correct harness. You should look for harnesses that have sturdy back padding, rings to place ropes through and leg straps. Tree removal harnesses are sometimes known as saddles due to their familiar western style leg straps. Belts can be very useful to hold spikes, rigging hardware and other rigging equipment.

Pulleys, Blocks, Carabiners and other miscellaneous tree removal equipment

Tree removal climbing gear such as pulleys and blocks are essential tree removal gear. You should make sure that all components that you assemble for the rigging system you’ll use are compatible with the other parts of your existing rigging system. Carabiners are often used by mountain climbers, but tree climbers use carabiners to link cable or rope in a pulley system to haul wood. (If you want more in-depth content on carabiners, check out Montem’s Carabiners 2018: Buyers Guide) The right tree removal climbing gear helps maintain safety while climbing trees, cutting tree limbs with chainsaws and lowering wood safely to the ground.

Arborists know that it’s important to have the right tree removal and climbing equipment for the job. Using this equipment correctly could mean the difference between life and death. Determining first what type of rigging system you need before doing the job can save you time, energy and boost your reputation as a tree expert. This was only a small outline of what you can do, as every tree is different and calls for combinations of rigging systems.

 

Contact us today if you need help assessing the right equipment for your tree removal project or if you need a hand removing your trees, 812.327.4573.

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